Scientists watch rats string memories together: Study shows neurons firing as rats thinks

first_imgShare on Twitter Share Email By using electrode implants to track nerve cells firing in the brains of rats as they plan where to go next, Johns Hopkins scientists say they have learned that the mammalian brain likely reconstructs memories in a way more like jumping across stepping stones than walking across a bridge. A summary of their experiments, published in the journal Science on July 10, sheds light on what memories are and how they form, and gives clues about how the system can fail.“My own introspective experience of memory tends to be one of discrete snapshots strung together, as opposed to a continuous video recording,” says David Foster, Ph.D., an assistant professor of neuroscience at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. “Our data from rats suggest that our memories are actually organized that way, with one network of neurons responsible for the snapshots and another responsible for the string that connects them.”Foster and his team focused their experiments on a group of nerve cells in the hippocampus of the brain known — in animals and people — for creating a mental “map” of experiences, or memories. The cells are called place cells because they each develop a preferred place in an environment and mainly fire only when the animal is in that place. LinkedIncenter_img Pinterest Share on Facebook In previous experiments, Foster’s group learned that when a rat wants to get from point A to point D, it maps out its route mentally before starting on its journey. They could “see” this happen by implanting many tiny wires in the brains of the rats so that they could monitor the activity of more than 200 place cells at a time. By doing so, they found that the place cells representing point A would fire first, followed by those for point B, then C and D.Their latest work, says Foster, is essentially a higher resolution “map” of the same process, which revealed gaps in between points A, B, C and D — not because they weren’t capturing enough place cell activity, but because there are actual “gaps” between discrete “memories” in the rats’ brains.“The trajectories that the rats reconstructed weren’t smooth,” says Foster. “We were able to see that neural activity ‘hovers’ in one place for about 20 milliseconds before ‘jumping’ to another place, where it hovers again before moving on to the next point.”He says that what seems to be happening during the hovering phase is an individual memory is being strengthened or focused. “At first, you get a ‘blurry’ representation of point A because a bunch of place cells all around point A fire, but, as time passes, the activity becomes more focused on A,” he explains. Then the activity jumps to a “blurry” version of B, which then gets focused.“We think that there is a whole network of cells dedicated to this process of fine-tuning and jumping,” says Foster. “Without it, memory retrieval would be even messier than it is.”In the future, the group plans to see what happens when certain memories within a path go missing, hoping to learn more about what memories are and how we can preserve them in those suffering from Alzheimer’s disease and other cognitive disorders.last_img read more

NCRTD Labor Day Holiday Closure; 255 Mountain Trail And 800 Angel Fire To Operate

first_imgNCRTD News: The exception is the 255 RTD Mountain Trail to the Santa Fe National Forest and the 800 Angel Fire routes, which will operate that day. The North Central Regional Transit District (NCRTD) has announced that the RTD “Blue Buses” will not be in service Monday, Sept. 2, in observance of the Labor Day holiday. last_img

I Am CARICOM – Dominica’s Ambassador to CARICOM

first_img I AM CARICOM Campaign Launch Saint Lucia Launches ‘I AM CARICOM’ Campaign Jul 6, 2020 In an interview to promote the #IAMCARICOM Campaign, Dominica’s Ambassador to CARICOM, His Excellency Felix Gregoire, tells us what CARICOM means to him. The #IAMCARICOM Campaign seeks to effectively and efficiently reach and engage all stakeholders, especially the general public, to create awareness and take ownership of the new Results-focused Community Strategic Plan for 2020, as well as to facilitate continuing dialogue between the Implementing partners and citizens of the Community where perspectives and information on the scope, issues, process, expected deliverables, and benefits and implications for citizens can be shared. Jul 20, 2020 You may be interested in… Saint Lucia’s ‘I am CARICOM’ dress contest… center_img Mar 24, 2020 Share this:PrintTwitterFacebookLinkedInLike this:Like Loading… Mar 23, 2020 CARICOM Envoy promotes #IAMCARICOM CARICOM Secretariat launches #IAMCARICOM Campaign On the margins of the Tenth Meeting of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Committee of Ambassadors held in Guyana, on Thursday, 21 November 2019, the CARICOM Secretariat launched the ‘I AM CARICOM’ Communications Campaign. The multi-media campaign is designed to improve the visibility of CARICOM, promote the CARICOM identity, increase citizens’…November 25, 2019In “#IAMCARICOM”National Consultations to inform the new Results-Focused 2020 CARICOM Strategic Plan   The Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Secretariat is supporting CARICOM Member States and Associate Members to convene broad-based consultations over the period 11 February to 6 April 2020 to inform the development of the Results-Focused 2020 Caribbean Community Strategic Plan. The New Strategic Plan will, among other things, serve to define…February 12, 2020In “Anguilla”I AM CARICOM Campaign LaunchThe I AM CARICOM Communications Campaign was launched in the margins of the Tenth Meeting of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Committee of Ambassadors held in Guyana, on Thursday, 21 November 2019. The #IAMCARICOM Campaign seeks to effectively and efficiently reach and engage all stakeholders, especially the general public, to create…March 24, 2020In “#IAMCARICOM”Share this on WhatsApplast_img read more

Praxair increases dividend in first quarter of 2011

first_imgGet instant access to must-read content today!To access hundreds of features, subscribe today! At a time when the world is forced to go digital more than ever before just to stay connected, discover the in-depth content our subscribers receive every month by subscribing to gasworld.Don’t just stay connected, stay at the forefront – join gasworld and become a subscriber to access all of our must-read content online from just $270. Subscribelast_img

DT Exclusive Interview with LUSCHI Associate Director

first_img[mappress]Dredging Today Staff, September 16, 2014 Brazilian dredging company LUSCHI is a service provider company focused on sanitation and environmental segments, offering dredging solution for wastewater treatment. DredgingToday.com is bringing you an exclusive interview with Mr. Ilson Rogerio Luschi, Associate Director of LUSCHI, who has been working on the development and implementation of projects for 8 years and is responsible for more than 25 projects in several sectors.DT: What can you tell us about the company’s 2014 goals and expectations?Luschi: Our goal for 2014 is to increase our production capacity considering the great demand from our clients over the years, besides being the fastest-growing dredging company in Brazil.Currently, the Brazilian market decreases, but LUSCHI is still in a favorable situation and it is seeking a partnership to meet its demand. LUSCHI works on a specific segment of dredging (small and medium size), which has enough demand, unlike the large dredging projects that have low supply and interest only to foreign companies.We are specialists in maritime dredging and contaminated treatment, which is a great advantage for LUSCHI in the Brazilian market, because, unfortunately, there are high levels of contamination in the bays and channels of our country.DT: Your company recently added TSHD “LUSCHI X” to its fleet. What can you tell us about the acquisition?Luschi: We acquired this trailing suction hopper dredger, the “LUSCHI X” (Also called: Recreio dos Bandeirantes) through the BIC bank (that belongs now to China Construction Bank), which by the way is a great vessel with good capacity. We are in the final stage of refurbishment and soon we will be operating it.DT: Can you provide us with more details about your dredging project for ArcelorMittal? Luschi: It is a simple work, however it has some details during the implementation which are complicated, for example, the canal is very tight and has 1.5 to 2 meters depth, in other words, no vessel can navigate to perform dredging.The company made adaptations to the hopper dredger LUSCHI IX, reversing the suction pipes towards to stern side (the vessel will enter with its back, in order to gain depth to access the canal). There are few machines that have this flexibility of adaptation.We recently received the dredging license from navy and we will be starting the operation this week, with the expected completion of approximately 50 days. In Brazil, some environmental licenses and work licenses take time to be released, delaying works. Unfortunately, this is very common in the Brazilian dredging market.DT: The group LUSCHI has recently settled a partnership with the French company CDO Innov, manufacturer of specific equipment for agriculture and sanitation?Luschi: The partnership between LUSCHI and CDO Innov consists of manufacturing boats and agricultural tractors (in Brazil) for sale throughout Latin America, as well as service. In case of boats that are designed for dredging area, they can be used as small tugs and for removal of aquatic vegetation.LUSCHI met CDO Innov due to problems encountered in water bodies of Latin America that have excess of vegetation and the fact does not exist in Brazil specific tool to remove vegetation, which delays the services of dredging.The boats of the CDO Innov have a great technology that provides the removal of vegetation, with high production and low cost, enabling the dredging works.DT: Which markets are currently in the focus of LUSCHI, and are you ready to expand your business?Luschi: The company is divided into three segments: maritime dredging, environmental dredging (conventional dredging and treatment of contaminated materials) and waterproofing using synthetic and bituminous membranes, geomembranes, and polyurethane.In all areas, LUSCHI seeks an increase in the Latin American market; in the maritime segment, more and more, we wish to work in small and medium dredging projects with emphasis on treatment of contaminated materials, joined by the LUSCHI Environmental and LUSCHI Maritime; also waterproofing is an ever-growing segment that has a lot of demand in the Latin American market.DT: What are your business plans for the future?We seek a growth in our business of at least 40% for 2015. In addition, we wish to expand our facilities to other Latin American countries, however it is too early to speak about our business strategies. But I believe in January we will establish a new basis. We also are studying to purchase a new hopper dredger.last_img read more

Shell eyeing Gail’s US LNG volumes

first_imgGail of India has reportedly entered talks with Shell to sell LNG volumes sourced from the United States. Reuters cites sources saying Gail has already inked preliminary deals with more companies.The Indian state-owned company revealed plans to sell 1 million tons per year in 2013. It planned to sell the volume over a period of five years. It had previously signed a supply deal with Cheniere for 3.5 mtpa of LNG over a period of 20 years.Gail has also secured 2.3 mtpa liquefaction capacity in Dominion’s Cove Point LNG liquefaction terminal project located at Lusby in the state of Maryland.Gail already had a memorandum of understanding signed with Shell and according to sources the company’s offer was the best Gail received.It is also said that despite Shell’s takeover of BG Group there will be no impact on its interest in Gail’s LNG volumes. LNG World News Staff; Image: Shelllast_img read more

Appeal to test article eight right over private property

first_imgSquatters occupying the likely site of Heathrow’s proposed third runway were yesterday given a six-week stay of eviction to appeal under article eight of the Human Rights Act, the right to home and family life. The site is privately owned and this will be the first time that a higher court has been asked to determine whether article eight applies to private landlords in the same way that it does to public bodies. If the Court of Appeal decides that the squatters do have rights under article eight, private landlords will in future find it harder to remove a tenant, particularly if the tenant is pregnant or has a young child, a disability or other compelling reason to remain in the property. The Heathrow squatters have for more than two years occupied a site they call Grow Heathrow, transforming it from a derelict rubbish dump to a place where they can live and grow produce. However, the owner of the site, Imran Malik, has successfully applied to Central London County Court to have the land returned to him. Judge Karen Walden-Smith, while accepting Malik’s claim for possession, said yesterday that she was taking the ‘unusual step’ of granting an appeal against her own order evicting the squatters so that the higher courts could determine whether article eight applies to the private sector as well as to public bodies. She said: ‘The supreme court has so far shied away from reaching a determination as to whether article eight applies to private as well as public landlords. ‘In my judgment… [since] the land is being occupied as a home, article eight is capable of application even though the landowner is a private individual and the occupiers are trespassers.’ If the Court of Appeal backs Walden-Smith’s decision, private landlords will have to take tenants’ human rights into consideration before asking them to leave. Grow Heathrow resident May Mackenzie said: ‘We are delighted by this opportunity to challenge laws which allow landlords to leave land empty and abused.’ A spokesman for Malik said that he was disappointed that leave to appeal has been granted. The squatters have six weeks in which to bring their appeal.last_img read more

Part-time judges ‘out of time’ to claim pension rights

first_imgA group of part-time judges has been refused permission to bring claims for better pensions after a judge ruled they were out of time.The claims were brought after the Supreme Court ruled in 2013 that part-time judges are ‘workers for the purpose of the Part-time Workers (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2000’, enabling part-time recorder Dermod O’Brien to win his fight to claim a full pension. Miller & Others v The Ministry of Justice went to the Employment Appeal Tribunal after an employment tribunal ruled in January 2014 that the part-time judges were out of time to bring a case. At the first hearing, the claimants argued that there would have been no point bringing the claim before a final decision was made in O’Brien, which they said was a test case. They also said that the MoJ had issued a moratorium in 2013 preventing the need for potential claimants to lodge ‘protective’ claims.But employment judge John MacMillan said the claimants were sophisticated litigants and would have known that as part-timers they had no access to the MoJ’s pension scheme. The judge also said they would have known that if they had a claim, a limitation period would apply.The tribunal judgment commented: ‘It seems that we have a large crowd of onlookers knowing that if the outsider wins they will benefit greatly but, doubting his chances of success, they wait until he unexpectedly pips the favourite at the post only to object when the bookmaker refuses to accept bets on the entirely understandable grounds that the race is over!’On appeal to the Employment Appeal Tribunal, the claimants argued that MacMillan did not ‘balance off’ the fact that O’Brien was a test case, and said he did not properly consider the reasons for the MoJ’s moratorium, namely that the tribunal would have been swamped if claimants had issued their claims in time.But in the appeal tribunal Mrs Justice Elisabeth Laing DBE (pictured) dismissed this argument, pointing out that the claims were already ‘well out of time’ by the time the moratorium was issued in 2013.She said: ‘The issue is not whether […] it would have been “just and equitable” to have a flood of claims before the moratorium, but not after it was published. The issue is whether it was just and equitable for time to be extended for those who should have made claims before the moratorium was published.’Laing also said she would not accept the argument that the employment tribunal should have considered what would have happened had the claims been issued in time.She said: ‘The likelihood (if it be one) that a claim issued within a limitation period would have been stayed is neither here nor there, nor is the fact that if all claims had been issued in time, there would have been a flood of them.’She ruled the employment tribunal was right to refuse to extend time, and dismissed the part-time judges’ appeal.last_img read more

China – Mongolia coal link agreed

first_imgMONGOLIA: Chinese state-owned mining group Shenhua, which operates 1 765 km of heavy haul coal railway in northern and central China, has signed a joint venture agreement to develop a cross-border rail link to serve the Tavan Tolgoi coalfield in the South Gobi region.Under an agreement signed in Ulaanbaatar on April 7, Shenhua will take a 49% stake in a joint venture being formed to progress the project. The remainder will be held by a consortium of Mongolian firms, including Erdenes Tavan Tolgoi and the private sector Mongolian Mining Corp, according to Yondon Manlaibayar, Director-General of the railway department at Mongolia’s Ministry of Roads & Transport.The joint venture will initially build a 13 km standard gauge cross-border line from the nearest Chinese railhead north of Baotou to a transloading terminal in southern Mongolia where coal will be brought from the mines by road.A second phase would see the cross-border link extended by a further 27 km to meet the 217 km broad-gauge coal railway from the Ukhaa Khudag coking coal mine, which is being built by South Korea’s Samsung C&T under a US$483m contract awarded last year. Manlaibayar said the extension would also be 1 435 mm gauge, and a gauge-changing facility would be provided at the southern end of Samsung’s 1 520 mm gauge route.Shenhua has already signed an agreement to buy 1 billion tonnes of coal from Mongolia over 20 years under a deal announced last October during a visit to China by Mongolian Prime Minister Norov Altankhuyag. This is reportedly one of the reasons that the joint venture has decided to develop the temporary transloading facility, rather than wait until the connection to the Korean-built line is ready.last_img read more

Wales & Borders bidders asked to propose Metro options

first_imgUK: The four bidders shortlisted for the contract to be the ‘Operator & Development Partner’ holding the next Wales & Borders franchise were announced by the Welsh Government’s Economy & Infrastructure Secretary Ken Skates on October 13.They are: Abellio Rail Cymru; Arriva Rail Wales/Rheilffyrdd Arriva Cymru Ltd; KeolisAmey; MTR Corp (Cymru) Ltd;The current franchise held by Arriva Trains Wales was awarded by the UK Department for Transport, but the replacement ODP contract is to be awarded by the devolved Welsh Government through a very different process with much more design input from the bidders.The Welsh Government sees the new franchise as a ‘once in a generation’ opportunity to build an integrated transport system, with the contract to be awarded through a negotiated procedure and less tightly specified than a DfT deal. The contract is to run for 15 years from late 2018, but the ODP may have a longer-term role in infrastructure development.The ODP would be required to support the development of the South Wales Metro concept, which aims to provide better multi-modal connectivity. The form of this is very much up for discussion as part of the bidding process, with bidders being asked to submit proposals which could range from 25 kV 50 Hz z electrification of the Valley Lines to tram-train or extensive light rail conversion and street running. The Welsh Government’s in-house company Transport for Wales will evaluate the bidders’ proposals against its objectives before deciding which to adopt.It is envisaged that the lines north of Cardiff Queen Street would be transferred from Network Rail to the Welsh Government and then managed by the ODP through a vertically-integrated model. Separate infrastructure delivery partners would be appointed to undertake Metro construction and maintenance. Bidders will also be asked to submit proposals for complete renewal of the rolling stock fleet. The Welsh Government says a ‘not for profit’ model is to be used for the new contract, but this refers specifically to TfW not seeking premium payments from the heavily-subsidised franchise.The ODP would be incentivised to deliver quality and value rather than fare revenue, and would focus on train operations and infrastructure development. TfW envisages taking direct responsibility for activities such as station management, ticketing, marketing, car parking and advertising sales. The Welsh Government had hoped to attract interest in the ODP contract from non-profit organisations, but none came forward. The Welsh Government had unsuccessfully lobbied for permission to submit a public-sector bid, which is not permitted by UK legislation. While the overall cost of the contract and Metro project would be dependent on the bidders’ proposals, the Welsh Government believes it has sufficient money in place. UK government funding agreed for Valley Lines electrification can be used for the Metro project, and negotiations are underway to secure European Union funding agreements ahead of the UK leaving the EU.Subscribe to Rail Business Intelligence for in-depth coverage of the UK rail industry.last_img read more